Os mais antigos artefatos de ouro conhecidos estão localizados na necrópole de Varna, foi enterrado há 6.500 anos

Os mais antigos artefatos de ouro conhecidos estão localizados na necrópole de Varna, um cemitério de 4.560-4.450 aC na costa búlgara do Mar Negro.

Internacionalmente considerada um dos mais importantes sítios arqueológicos pré-históricos do mundo, a necrópole de Varna (também chamada de Cemitério de Varna) é um importante cemitério na zona industrial ocidental de Varna. Vem do período calcolítico (período do cobre) da cultura de Varna, que existiu há cerca de 6.000-6.500 anos.

Até agora, um total de 294 túmulos com cerca de 3.000 artefatos de ouro foram descobertos na necrópole de Varna, de acordo com a Arqueologia da Bulgária. Embora muitos túmulos de elite tenham sido descobertos, há um que se destaca entre os outros – o túmulo 43. Os arqueólogos descobriram os restos mortais de um homem alto que parecia um governante ou líder.

The golden treasure in Varna was accidentally discovered in 1972 during the construction of a tin factory on site, when a 22-year-old excavator operator named Raycho Marinov dug up several artifacts and collected them in a shoe box. and brought him to his house. . A few days later, he decided to contact some local archaeologists and let them know about the discovery.

Subsequently, a total of 294 calcolithic graves were excavated in the necropolis. Using radiocarbon dating, the tombs of the Copper Age, where the golden treasure of Varna was found, date back to 4,560-4,450 BC.

All these strange treasures are the product of ancient European human civilization, which developed during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic period in present-day Bulgaria and the rest of the Balkans, the Lower Danube, and the west coast of the Black Sea. Some scholars call this prehistoric civilization “old Europe.”

Discoveries from the necropolis suggest that Varna’s culture had trade relations with remote areas of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, and that rock salt was probably exported from Provadiya-Solnitsata (“Salt Well”). Archaeologists also believe that the seashells of the Mediterranean mollusk Spondyla found in the tombs of the necropolis of Varna and other chalcolitic sites in northern Bulgaria were probably used as a type of coin in this ancient culture.

Subsequently, a total of 294 calcolithic graves were excavated in the necropolis. Using radiocarbon dating, the tombs of the Copper Age, where the golden treasure of Varna was found, date back to 4,560-4,450 BC.

All these strange treasures are the product of ancient European human civilization, which developed during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic period in present-day Bulgaria and the rest of the Balkans, the Lower Danube, and the west coast of the Black Sea. Some scholars call this prehistoric civilization “old Europe.”

Discoveries from the necropolis suggest that Varna’s culture had trade relations with remote areas of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, and that rock salt was probably exported from Provadiya-Solnitsata (“Salt Well”). Archaeologists also believe that the seashells of the Mediterranean mollusk Spondyla found in the tombs of the necropolis of Varna and other chalcolitic sites in northern Bulgaria were probably used as a type of coin in this ancient culture.

Gold items include 10 large applications, a large number of rings, some of which hang on strings, two necklaces, chains, something like a gold phallus, gold bow ornaments, a stone ax and a copper ax with gold. ornaments such as bows with gold applications.

In another tomb explored on site, Tomb No. 36 – a symbolic tomb – archaeologists found more than 850 gold items including a tiara, earrings, necklace, belt, bracelet, breastplate, gold scepter with hammer, gold model. in one pruning, two gold bars representing animals and 30 models of horn heads.

The objects were found covered with a gold-wrapped cloth that lined the outlines of the human body with numerous artifacts on the right, indicating that the tomb had a male burial mound. Gold artifacts were once interpreted by archaeologists as royal insignia.

Sepulturas “reais” semelhantes também são encontradas nas sepulturas nº. 1, 4 e 5 na necrópole calcolítica em Varna. Muitos achados da necrópole calcolítica de Varna são vistos como uma celebração do papel do ferreiro, que como criador substituiu o papel da Grande Mãe e transformou o mundo matriarcal em um mundo patriarcal.

Na cultura do cálculo, a posição do carpinteiro era comparável à do rei, porque o metal era um símbolo do estado e não um meio econômico na época.

Cerca de 30% da área acidentada da necrópole ainda não foi escavada.

 

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